Pharmacogenetic Testing For Avoiding Adverse Drug Effects

According to Waleed Alabsi, Pharmacogenomics refers to the study of how the genetic makeup of a person affects their response to medications. This field done by Youscript System combines

According to Waleed Alabsi, Pharmacogenomics refers to the study of how the genetic makeup of a person affects their response to medications. This field done by Youscript System combines pharmacology and genomics to come up with effective and safe medications that are personalized and tailored to a person’s genetic makeup.

Adverse drug reactions contribute to a significant number of hospitalizations and death. Researchers are discovering how inherited differences in genes can affect a body’s response to medication. Genomics is used to identify whether a medication will work in a patient or it will result in an adverse drug reaction.


A significant cause of death and serious illness in patients according to Youscript is due to adverse drug reactions and causes difficulties in the pharmaceutical industry during drug development. Adverse reactions are classed as idiosyncratic reactions which are not caused by drug concentrations but due to unusual patient phenotype. Serious adverse drug reactions are classified as type A or B.

Waleed Alabsi says that Idiosyncratic adverse reactions are believed to affect different organs like the liver, skin, heart, and muscle, and kidney. In some drugs, hypersensitivity reactions can occur. Looking at drug withdrawals, the biggest number of compounds withdrawn from the market was because of either hepatotoxicity or toxicity affecting cardiac function. When the lever is affected by adverse drug reactions it shows heterogeneity in their phenotypic effect. These reactions are referred to as drug-induced liver injury (DILI). 10% of these hepatotoxic adverse drug reactions have the potential to progress to liver failure which can be resolved through a liver transplant.

According to Waleed Alabsi, an important feature of serious adverse drug reactions is genetic susceptibility. There is considerable interest that the development of genetic tests identifying all those at risk of adverse drug reactions before prescription might lead to the development of valuable drugs.

Pharmacogenomic approaches used to identify causative genes:

Research on pharmacogenomics by Youscript to identify genes that contribute to susceptibility to adverse drug reactions has involved case-control association studies through candidate feen approach or genome-wide association (GWA) analysis. Developments in GWA studies have contributed to considerable progress in complex disease genomics. This is considered the most appropriate approach to use in identifying causative genes in adverse drug reactions.

According to Waleed Alabsi, a few reasons have been identified for this. The genetic risk factors identified have large effect sizes and are generally found in biologically obvious genes. The advantage of GWA studies is their open approach where all gene variations are looked into. This advantage has led to the discovery of entirely novel associations that would otherwise have been unlikely to be predicted through candidate gene approaches. When detecting small defects, GWA is particularly valuable though the limitation with most studies on adverse drug reactions is that the number of study cases is small. Assembling large uniform cohorts can be challenging since the genetic risk factors for adverse drug reactions are drug-specific and not simply end-organ-specific.

Waleed Alabsi says that it is unlikely that GWA studies will identify all genetic risk factors that cause adverse drug reactions. There are rare variants that can only be detected by sequencing studies. Through exome sequencing where all coding of genes is a sequence, significant progress has been made in some diseases. This type of sequencing by the Youscript System has been most valuable in detecting variants in rare diseases that show Mendelian inheritance rather than in complex diseases. That said there have been some exceptions reported in the fields of infectious disease and type II diabetes. Where regulatory sequences are determined in whole-genome sequencing, it s necessary to provide sufficient sensitivity to spot rare variants that are relevant to adverse drug reactions.

Waleed Alabsi describes an adverse drug event as an injury resulting from a medical intervention related to a drug. This can be in the form of allergic reactions, medication errors, overdoses, and adverse drug reactions.

Waleed Alabsi describes an adverse drug event as an injury resulting from a medical intervention related to a drug. This can be in the form of allergic reactions, medication errors, overdoses, and adverse drug reactions. A study published in the Journal of Patient Safety found that approximately 13% of 30-day hospital re-admissions were caused by ADEs. Out of those, more than 80% were serious, and close to 93% were preventable.

There are reasons why patients have adverse drug events. Here’s a look into them.

  1. Errors in prescriptions

A research study conducted into 30-day readmissions found that half of all readmissions were caused by drug events which were attributed to patients receiving the wrong prescription. This is especially the case in patients who are analgesics, diuretics, and antithrombotics.YouScript technology helps doctors avoid prescribing the wrong medication.

2. Reconciliation errors

Waleed Alabsi says that medication reconciliation is a major issue of concern for patients taking multiple medications. A report on Hospital National Patient Safety Goals by the Joint Commission identified medical reconciliation as a top priority. Multiple medications could pose a risk that some of these treatments could interact badly resulting in health issues for the patient.

3. Patient errors

YouScript System ensures that chances of patients misunderstanding their doctor’s instructions, fail to remember how much drug they have taken, or mistakenly take too much or too little of their prescribed drugs are avoided. A patient may also forget to inform their physician about all the medications they are on resulting in negative side effects.

Common Medications That Cause Adverse Events:

While an ADE can be seen to occur with any medication, according to Waleed Alabsi, some common medications often bring issues.

These medications include:

Inhalers – Common mistakes while using the inhaler include not assembling the inhaler correctly and going through the whole process of inhaler use. Incorrect use of an inhaler can result in the patient ending up back in the hospital.

Anticoagulants (Blood Thinners) – These medications are classified as high risk. They can be life-saving for patients with heart disease while carrying the risk of causing bleeding and hospital readmission

Diabetes Medications – Patients can have an ADE when taking insulin medications by taking either too much or too little.

Pain Medications (Opioids) – Opioids are used to manage pain. The regular use of opioids even when prescribed by a medical professional can lead to addiction and misuse can overdose or even death.

How to Prevent Adverse Drug Events

Waleed Alabsi recommends that patients do the following to prevent adverse drug events:

  1. YouScrpit helps take an inventory of every drug you are taking and how much you take it.
  2. Include over-the-counter medications that you take regularly. Many of these drugs can have adverse reactions when combined with prescription drugs.
  3. Ensure that you follow the instructions given by your doctor.
  4. It is advisable to consider enrolling in the Waleed Alabsi rehabilitation program. It has many benefits like having a team of rehab professionalsthat will help manage your medications, keep a track of how many medications you have and when you should take them. They will also ensure that your medical regime is safe and appropriate making sure you are aware of any potential risks and how to minimize them.
  5. YouScript Systemensures that drug labeling is done well to avoid overdosing or under-dosing.
  6. Alcohol should never be consumed while a patient is under medication.
  7. Some medications require one to eat food before taking the drug while other medications require a patient not to consume food. It’s important to adhere to this as instructed.
  8. Be aware of previous drug reactions and look at the label on your current medication for any components that can cause a reaction.
  9. Waleed Alabsia dvises patients not to take Over-The-Counter medications together with vitamins.

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